Massively univariate analysis of a motor task from the Localizer dataset#

This example shows the results obtained in a massively univariate analysis performed at the inter-subject level with various methods. We use the [left button press (auditory cue)] task from the Localizer dataset and seek association between the contrast values and a variate that measures the speed of pseudo-word reading. No confounding variate is included in the model.

  1. A standard ANOVA is performed. Data smoothed at 5 voxels FWHM are used.

  2. A permuted Ordinary Least Squares algorithm is run at each voxel. Data smoothed at 5 voxels FWHM are used.

Note

If you are using Nilearn with a version older than 0.9.0, then you should either upgrade your version or import maskers from the input_data module instead of the maskers module.

That is, you should manually replace in the following example all occurrences of:

from nilearn.maskers import NiftiMasker

with:

from nilearn.input_data import NiftiMasker
# Author: Virgile Fritsch, <virgile.fritsch@inria.fr>, May. 2014
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from nilearn import datasets
from nilearn.maskers import NiftiMasker
from nilearn.mass_univariate import permuted_ols

Load Localizer contrast

n_samples = 94
localizer_dataset = datasets.fetch_localizer_contrasts(
    ['left button press (auditory cue)'],
    n_subjects=n_samples, legacy_format=False
)

# print basic information on the dataset
print('First contrast nifti image (3D) is located at: %s' %
      localizer_dataset.cmaps[0])

tested_var = localizer_dataset.ext_vars['pseudo']
# Quality check / Remove subjects with bad tested variate
mask_quality_check = np.where(
    np.logical_not(np.isnan(tested_var))
)[0]
n_samples = mask_quality_check.size
contrast_map_filenames = [localizer_dataset.cmaps[i]
                          for i in mask_quality_check]
tested_var = tested_var[mask_quality_check].values.reshape((-1, 1))
print("Actual number of subjects after quality check: %d" % n_samples)
First contrast nifti image (3D) is located at: /home/runner/work/nilearn/nilearn/nilearn_data/brainomics_localizer/brainomics_data/S01/cmaps_LeftAuditoryClick.nii.gz
Actual number of subjects after quality check: 89

Mask data

nifti_masker = NiftiMasker(
    smoothing_fwhm=5,
    memory='nilearn_cache', memory_level=1)  # cache options
fmri_masked = nifti_masker.fit_transform(contrast_map_filenames)

Anova (parametric F-scores)

/usr/share/miniconda3/envs/testenv/lib/python3.8/site-packages/sklearn/utils/validation.py:1111: DataConversionWarning:

A column-vector y was passed when a 1d array was expected. Please change the shape of y to (n_samples, ), for example using ravel().

Perform massively univariate analysis with permuted OLS

This method will produce both voxel-level FWE-corrected -log10 p-values and TFCE-based FWE-corrected -log10 p-values.

Note

permuted_ols can support a wide range of analysis designs, depending on the tested_var. For example, if you wished to perform a one-sample test, you could simply provide an array of ones (e.g., np.ones(n_samples)).

ols_outputs = permuted_ols(
    tested_var,  # this is equivalent to the design matrix, in array form
    fmri_masked,
    model_intercept=True,
    masker=nifti_masker,
    tfce=True,
    n_perm=200,  # 200 for the sake of time. Ideally, this should be 10000.
    verbose=1,  # display progress bar
    n_jobs=1,  # can be changed to use more CPUs
    output_type='dict',
)
neg_log_pvals_permuted_ols_unmasked = nifti_masker.inverse_transform(
    ols_outputs['logp_max_t'][0, :]  # select first regressor
)
neg_log_pvals_tfce_unmasked = nifti_masker.inverse_transform(
    ols_outputs['logp_max_tfce'][0, :]  # select first regressor
)
[Parallel(n_jobs=1)]: Using backend SequentialBackend with 1 concurrent workers.
Job #1, processed 0/200 permutations (0.00%, 10440.399646759033 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 10/200 permutations (5.00%, 218.45478653907776 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 20/200 permutations (10.00%, 196.18880081176758 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 30/200 permutations (15.00%, 182.48236465454102 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 40/200 permutations (20.00%, 172.14226722717285 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 50/200 permutations (25.00%, 159.47883582115173 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 60/200 permutations (30.00%, 148.00319329897565 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 70/200 permutations (35.00%, 136.7808953012739 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 80/200 permutations (40.00%, 125.74553489685059 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 90/200 permutations (45.00%, 115.38937475946216 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 100/200 permutations (50.00%, 104.88283109664917 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 110/200 permutations (55.00%, 94.3789231343703 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 120/200 permutations (60.00%, 83.89300282796223 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 130/200 permutations (65.00%, 74.18745873524593 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 140/200 permutations (70.00%, 64.10863617488316 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 150/200 permutations (75.00%, 53.594860553741455 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 160/200 permutations (80.00%, 43.177273988723755 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 170/200 permutations (85.00%, 32.58685755729675 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 180/200 permutations (90.00%, 21.823322878943546 seconds remaining)
Job #1, processed 190/200 permutations (95.00%, 10.939588873009932 seconds remaining)
[Parallel(n_jobs=1)]: Done   1 out of   1 | elapsed:  3.6min finished

Visualization

from nilearn import plotting
from nilearn.image import get_data

# Various plotting parameters
z_slice = 12  # plotted slice
threshold = - np.log10(0.1)  # 10% corrected

vmax = max(
    np.amax(ols_outputs['logp_max_t']),
    np.amax(neg_log_pvals_anova),
    np.amax(ols_outputs['logp_max_tfce']),
)

images_to_plot = {
    "Parametric Test\n(Bonferroni FWE)": neg_log_pvals_anova_unmasked,
    "Permutation Test\n(Max t-statistic FWE)": (
        neg_log_pvals_permuted_ols_unmasked
    ),
    "Permutation Test\n(Max TFCE FWE)": neg_log_pvals_tfce_unmasked,
}

fig, axes = plt.subplots(figsize=(12, 3), ncols=3)
for i_col, (title, img) in enumerate(images_to_plot.items()):
    ax = axes[i_col]
    n_detections = (get_data(img) > threshold).sum()
    new_title = title + f"\n{n_detections} sig. voxels"

    plotting.plot_glass_brain(
        img,
        colorbar=True,
        vmax=vmax,
        display_mode='z',
        plot_abs=False,
        cut_coords=[12],
        threshold=threshold,
        figure=fig,
        axes=ax,
    )
    ax.set_title(new_title)

fig.suptitle(
    "Group left button press ($-\\log_{10}$ p-values)",
    y=1.3,
    fontsize=16,
)
Group left button press ($-\log_{10}$ p-values), Parametric Test (Bonferroni FWE) 3 sig. voxels, Permutation Test (Max t-statistic FWE) 13 sig. voxels, Permutation Test (Max TFCE FWE) 743 sig. voxels
Text(0.5, 1.3, 'Group left button press ($-\\log_{10}$ p-values)')

Total running time of the script: ( 3 minutes 50.445 seconds)

Estimated memory usage: 203 MB

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